Wednesday, 26 November 2014

Ramayana Research - Heladiva

Ramayana Research - Heladiva


In the world map Sri Lanka (Heladiva) is in latitude 5.55 to 9.51 east. It’s in length and breadth is 432 and 224 kilometres respectively and in area is 65,525 square kilometres. The southwest monsoon starts in May and ends in September and the northwest start in October, and ends in November. The huge volume of rainwater that falls into the wet zone meets the sea in East, West, and South through a network of perennial streams and tributaries numbering to twenty major rivers. The tropical forests’ bearing tall trees interspersed with thick under growth provides protection for birds and beasts.

Sri Lanka was then called Heladiva, Heladvipa, Helanka, Seylan, Taprobane, Heladiva, and Lanka and was internationally famous, as Dhammadvipa. Ptolemy called it ‘Salike’ and the people ‘Salai’. It was also, called the Island of Teaching, as the Ionian Greeks and the Chinese came to learn The Teachings of the Buddha. In this Island Dhamma was documented, at Aluthvihare, presently known as Aluvihare, a Rock Temple in Matale District in the Central hills, during the reign of King Valagambhahu 103 BC. 

Millenniums back our ancestors roamed the jungles for food and lived in rock caves in rainy weather. From the excavations in Sabaragamuwa province bones of pre-historic elephants, hippopotamus, and rhinoceros and from its gem pits hand axes, geometrical utensils, grinding stones, mortars, and pestles were found. It, in assessment to the ones found in the Indian sub-continent dates back 125,000 years and is established by the findings of Bundala and Iranamaduwa. A recent study proves that human occupation in this Island goes back to a very early period and confirms that its inhabitants were civilised, cultured, and developed in agriculture. 

Incidents of the past and its unending flow are called history. It’s divided into two, as oral and recorded history. The former is based on legends and folklores and the latter on historical facts. The history of Heladiva extends to millenniums prior to recorded history and it is quite frivolous to accept that our origins began with the advent of Vijaya but forced to admit this position, as our historian’s have not done a broad based research to the pre Vijaya era. Our history is recorded in our historical chronicles such as Dipawansa, Mahawansa and many more. The Dipawansa compiled much earlier than the Mahawansa, projects more historical data on Lord Buddha’s visit to Heladiva. However, the compilers have not taken an interest in exactness of the origins of the clans that lived in Heladiva then viz, the Yakshas, Nagas, Rakshas, and the Devas. 

According to the Uttara kanda Ramayana Malyavantha, Sumali and Sukesha of the Raksha (Rakus is not daemon but farmers) clan governed Lanka but according to Vishnu Purana and Buddhavansha it was Iraniya (Hiran) who governed Lanka. 

Malyavantha, Sumali and Mali the ones referred in Ramayana headed the first inhabitants of Heladiva. Malyavantha had seven sons: Vajramushti, Virupaksha, Dhurmuka, Supthagna, Yangnakopa, Maththa, Unmaththa, and the daughter were Anala. Sumali had ten sons, Prahastha, Akampana, Vikata, Kalimukha, Dhumaraksha, Dhanda, Suparshva, Sangradhi, Pragasa, Basakarna, and were Sumali’s ten sons and the daughters were Rakha, Pushpothkata, Kaikashi (Rawana’s mother) and Kumbinasi and Mali’s sons were, Anala, Anila, Hara and Sampathi. 

These three brothers and their sons crossed over to India and began to harass the Deva clan. Vishnu listening to the woes of the Deva clan agreed to help them and defeat the Raksha clan invaders. Mali was killed in the battle. Malyavantha and Sumali went into the underworld. This ousted the Raksha rulers in Sri Lanka. Sage Vaisrawana who was residing in Vishvagiriya [present Vessagiriya] made this the opportunity to overrun the Raksha Dynasty in Heladiva. The inscription located in a cave in Mihintale as ‘Diparakdha’ would be referring to King Malyavantha the pre – historic ruler of Sri Lanka. The inscription ‘Dhammarakdha’ at Bowaththegala, Ruhuna has to be explored as it may be referring to the descendents of King Sumali.

Vishnu Purana, Skanda Purana, and Ramayana speak of Heladiva. Vishnu Purana states that Vishnu waged war with the Sri Lankan Kings Iran (Hiran, Hiran Kasub) and Makuta, and describes its populace as highly developed and civilised. It is established in Skanda Purana and Ramayana. Rama invaded Heladiva millenniums after Vishnu and Skanda. Matsaya Purana states that Rawana’s son Indrajith bombed the invaders hiding in the clouds and it also states that they used a bow that could send out 12000 arrows per minute. All these descriptions confirm that the populace of Heladiva was highly developed. 

The British history begins in 1066 AD with the Nomads war. When Christ was born in Nazareth, King Bhathikabaya covered the Maha Thupa with Jasmine flowers and sprinkled water pumped from Abaya Wewa. When St Paul was brought before Caesar as a prisoner, our ambassadors were enjoying royal patronage in his palace.

Lord Buddha's visit which is confirmed by a rock inscription confirms that the populace of Heladiva were cultured, developed in agriculture, and other technologies. Rawana’s ‘Dandumonara’ was an air chariot operated on a different mechanism and is still not discovered by historians or scientists. Rawana owned a many planes not one as it is made to understand. It proves that the Helayo were able to turn out air chariots to fly without petroleum. Rawana’s predecessors were Bali, Tharu, and Dhasis. Rawana had six brothers and two sisters.

There lies a wealth of evidence in our folklore and folk songs, and one can hear similes in our myths, legends, demonology, and devil dancing. ‘Kohombakankariya’ offer useful data. A great deal of information of its people and features relating to ethnology, sociology, religious beliefs, and magical practises could be detected in it. However, the researcher will have to bear in mind that it is not possible to assess, as most of the archaeological materials and evidence belonging to pre-history remains concealed. Archaeologists who perform scientific excavations into plausible areas of occupation have to establish it. Professor Deraniyagala a former Commissioner of Archaeology confirms that Heladiva had a greatly developed pre-historic civilization. 

The highly civilised Rakshas, Yakshas, Nagas, and Devas developed Heladiva millenniums before the arrival of Vijaya. What led to its turn down is an exciting question? Had this civilisation developed after Vijaya there crops up a much more exciting question, as to how a farming community develop such a highly developed civilisation in a very short phase? Is it possible for an advanced river valley civilisation to arise suddenly and decline abruptly? There is evidence that the Helayo’s grew oats and barley in the Horton plains 17000 BCE states Dr Shiran Deraniyagala. The finding of mortars, pestles, and grinding stones confirm that they used spices for cooking. The artefacts and bones discovered from excavations in Kithulgala and Batadomba caves, belong to the early Stone Age, and believed to be of a woman who lived 27000-34000 years ago. The odds are that the archaeological and sequential evidences are still concealed, unknown, and undiscovered. The need of the day is to discover what is undiscovered. 

Evidence exists that Ramayana was based on a genuine incident but significant proof is lacking, as most historians have not explored into pre-history. It is more fitting to note the facts, which connect the oral and recorded history. According to the legend Rawana, the King of Heladiva abducted princess Seetha the beautiful wife of Prince Rama, in retaliation for Luxhmana (brother of Rama) barbarous act of cutting off the ears and nose of his sister Suparnika. There are many sites around Sri Lanka that links with the romantic legend of Rama – Seetha. 

Rishi Valmiki authored the epic Ramayana, based on a genuine incident. It details the Rama-Rawana war, which took place 6000 – 8000 BCE. Can it be concluded a myth, as evidence is not established? Can it be classified just a mythical incident, as it contains literary exaggerations? It details that Rama and Luxhmana were the sons of King Dasaratha who reigned Ayodhya a provincial State in India, which the Indians accept indisputably. It confirms that Rawana lived in Sri-Lanka during this period. 

Archaeological findings prove that the human beings who lived in Heladiva 27000-34000 BC were agriculturists. The carbon tests done detected kurakkan [a grain similar to maize] and bones of oceanic cell fish were found in the environs of the caverns in Kithulgala situated in the centre of the Island, which is far away from the sea. It proves that its inhabitants, had methods of transporting sea fish to the centre of the Island before it was spoilt or had the know-how of preserving it. The findings of cooking utensils such as mortars, pestles, and grinding stones in the Ratnapura District used 125,000 years ago, confirm that the early populace of Heladiva used spices for cooking and it could be assumed that they had quick methods of transporting fish or had the knowledge of preserving it. Traders from the West and Far East visited Heladiva in search of gems, ivory, spices, and pearls, peacocks and elephants. During this period indigenous Helayo’s lived in Heladiva, as it is strategically placed in the Indian Ocean, which often attracted traders and invaders from neighbouring and distant countries. Non-Aryans and the Indo-Aryans came in as friends and foe in the distant past. Ships with the Persian pennant came to Heladiva to purchase its produce. The ancient Sinhalayo grew rice for consumption and export. The Romans, Europeans, and Greeks from distant Europe and Arabs from Middle East and Chinese from the Far East visited Heladiva in the early days to learn Buddha Dhamma, on good will missions and on trade as well. 

A bitch led Vijaya to Princess Kuveni who was seated by a tank spinning cotton. The native populace of Heladiva were spinning cotton in 543 BCE (All these dates are according to Chronicles. The exactness of it is not confirmed by the writer as it is a controversial subject). Princess Kuveni inquiring Vijaya of his whereabouts showed him rice. It is said that it was love at first sight. Later in the evening arrangements were made for Vijaya to spend the night with her on a bed under a tree with nightlong dancing and singing. Civilised cultural qualities found in developed farming communities were found here. The populace of Heladiva were developed not only in agriculture but also with accompanying arts and crafts. 

The exiled Vijaya and his attendants of seven hundred men stepped on our coast in 543 BCE. Ven. Mahanama Thera compiled the Mahawansa many centuries later and claims that Helayo descend from Vijaya. His intention was to claim a link to his most revered teacher Lord Buddha and to claim that the Hela monarchy is linked to Lord Buddha’s clan through marriage of Sakhya Princess Baddhakachchayana to Vijaya’s nephew King Panduwasadeva. 

The compilers of Mahawansa and other historical chronicles at most times gave significance to religion. They welded the original principles of political and social life into an all-inclusive theory called religion, which changed the essentials of our history. It should be noted that the singular characteristic of the ancient Sinhala culture is that it has been moulded and shaped in the path of its history more by religious than by political or economic influence.

Vijaya with the help of Queen Kuveni deceitfully killed King Mahakalasena the King of Heladiva and became its ruler. Few years later he had two descendents to the throne off Queen Kuveni. They were Dighahaththa a prince, and Disala a princess. The ungrateful Vijaya banished Queen Kuveni and her two children from the palace and married an Indian princess but she bore no descendents to succeed him. It proves that the monarchy of Heladiva is not descending from Vijaya and it is frivolous to state that we descend from him. 

Rakshas, Yakshas, Nagas, and the Devas were the original populace or the native Aryans of Heladiva millenniums before Vijaya. Lord Buddha called the ones with noble qualities Arya and the ignoble Anārya. His first visit to Mahiyangana was a peace mission to settle a dispute among the Yaksha clan. Developed and civilised communities who possessed developed states of mind could only understand his deep philosophy. He before his visit saw through clairvoyance that the people living in Heladiva were dignified ones. He preached Dhamma settling the dispute, in which place the Mahiyangana Dagoba was built. 

The majority of the Naga clan were domiciled in the western coastal area extending to the north. The second visit of Lord Buddha to Heladiva was to settle the quarrel between two brothers, Chulodara [Kuda Bandiya] and Mahodara [Maha Bandiya] of the Naga clan. They were to wage a war for a gem-studded chair on which Lord Buddha sat and settled the dispute. The Dagoba in Nagadvipa is an Island in the Northern Province, and is revered to date by Buddhists world over. On this visit the Provincial Naga King Maniakkitha invited Lord Buddha to sanctify his kingdom in Kelaniya. Lord Buddha acknowledged the invitation and sanctified Heladiva for the third time. It is said the gem-studded chair in which Lord Buddha sat and settled the dispute of the Naga’s is enshrined in the Kelaniya Dagoba. This oral history confirms that it was Lord Buddha who introduced his Dhamma to Heladiva. 

Four brothers and craftsmen of eighteen guilds accompanied Sakhya Princess Baddhakachchayana to Heladiva. They began to build new villages. It would not have progressed in a strange land without significant strength. The Nagas who were great builders supplied the knowledge of land, material, and the know-how and continued to put into operation the programs of the new colonists. They lived intermingled, interspersed with the post-Vijaya populace in all parts of Heladiva. The city of Vijithapura indicated in the Mahawansa has three moats, and its remains are indicated in the aerial photographs, located in-between Kaduruwela and the new town of Polonnaruwa.

Panduwasadeva succeeded Vijaya and had eleven children of which the youngest was a princess. The eldest prince was Abaya followed by Tissa, Uththiya, Tissa, Asela, Vibhana, Rama, Siva, Maththakala, Maththa, and princess Chitra. Abaya succeeded his father. Meanwhile the Yaksha clan strengthened their armies in Ritigala, Dimbulagala, and Bintenna to regain their kingdom from the Indo-Aryans. King Abaya was informed that the Yaksha clan was strengthening their armies and him to arrest their enmity, appointed two young Yaksha Princes, Kalawela, and Chithraraja, as his Ministers. 

In the past also, the soothsayers were respected and believed. A soothsayer predicted to the King that his daughter Chitra would bear a child who when grown up would kill all his maternal uncles and rule the country. All brothers except King Abaya decided to kill their sister but he intervened and made them to agree to keep her in isolation in a special apartment called ‘Ek-Tam-Ge’. The entrance to this apartment was from king’s bedroom. It was only Chithraraja, Kalawela and the female Rakus attendant Kumbinasi was allowed in. However, Princes Chitra fell in love with the Rakus Prince Chithraraja, a Minister of her brother. She bore a son off him and was named Pandukabhaya. The baby prince was secretly sent to his paternal relations in Ritigala for adoption in exchange to a baby girl, as the maternal uncles were on the lookout to kill if a prince was born. The truth was uncovered. King Abaya made many vain attempts to kill the baby prince. 

The royal teacher of their clan Pandula trained Prince Pandukabhaya in all arts of warfare and helped him financially to gather an army to regain the kingdom from the Indo-Aryans. King Abaya led the Indo-Aryans to war while Prince Pandukabhaya led the Yaksha clan and killed all his maternal uncles and won the war in 457 BCE confirming the soothsayer but was enthroned in 437 BCE for reasons historically unknown. King Pandukabhaya built a shrine in the name of his father Chithraraja and for the Yaksha clan minister Kalawela, in the boundaries of his capital Anuradhapura, as they were the ones who helped him to regain the kingdom from the Indo-Aryans. He ruled as a just King for seventy years and urbanized Anuradhapura to a model city in the years before Christ. In oral history we do not know who the first King was, as it goes back millenniums but according to recorded history the first Sinhala King is Pandukabhaya. 

The recorded historical findings explored confirm that the father of King Pandukabhaya hailed from an indigenous clan. His son Mutasiva reigned Anuradhapura in 367-307 BCE and had two sons and the elder governed Anuradhapura as King Devanampiyatissa 307-267 BCE and the younger Mahanaga governed Ruhuna, as the provincial King and King Kavantissa is his descendent. King Kavantissa’s son is our hero King Dutugamunu 161-137 BCE who united Heladiva. The Indo-Aryans headed our monarchy for 106 years from 543-437 BCE and with the enthronement of King Pandukabhaya in 437 BCE it reverted back to the indigenous populace.

When one considers the earliest works of art, architecture and irrigation systems in Heladiva it is evident that tank building, bund constructions, irrigation systems, architecture, sculpture, stone cutting, were important vocations in the pre-Vijaya society. The construction works and objects of arts have been the manifestation of forms that followed the traditions of its original population. They developed irrigation systems and constructed tanks in the pre-Vijaya era. The Indo-Aryans inherited their knowledge of irrigation, tank building, and bund construction from the forerunners of Heladiva. 

In 500 BC the Indo-Aryan Prince Anurudda built a palace and a tank in Anuradhapura. King Pandukabhaya deepened a natural pond and built the Abaya Tank [Basavakkulama]. Granite was used in sculpture. In the sculptured statues of Lord Buddha in Heladiva, elements and characteristics that were not present in the Indian models are present: the eternal gentle smile, the gentleness of feelings, and the expression of determination. The Indo-Aryans inherited these elements of philosophy and beauty from the original populace. 

The Sri-Lankans taught the South Indians in the Cauvery basin to grow irrigated rice. It was done to have buffer stocks; sometimes our exports were taken by force, as indicated in the Mahawansa. They built Poduke, the new city in Cauvery in South India that is indicated by Ptolemy in his map of the second century AD and it clearly indicates our contacts with the rest of the world. It resulted in the development of an exclusive hydraulic civilisation that the ancient inhabitants of Heladiva exercised from the Stone Age to the Iron Age bypassing the Bronze Age. In reference to the Ptolemy’s map various tribes and nations had their harbours and settlements for trade, the capital metropolises of the Kings, international emporia rivers and mountains, the source of rivers also the Sacred Adams Peak foot print is clearly indicated. 

During the reign of King Parakramabahu the Great in 12 AD, the Helayo’s cultivated more land than that is presently cultivated under the Mahaweli Development Project with large reservoirs on the main Mahaweli River to capture floodwaters. Today the base flow is small. It was caused by the deforestation of the Upper Catchments. The ancient Maduru Oya sluice discovered in 1981 and had two sluices and was built in three stages, starting from the BCE period. According to the Mahawansa the Yaksha clan held their annual New Year festival ‘Sun Festival’ at Dolapabbatha, which lies between Mahaweli River and Maduru Oya even during the time of King Pandukabhaya. This indicate the antiquity of the region in the BC period, which was occupied by the pioneers of irrigation technology, the Helayo’s who in their wisdom used cultivable land in cyclic rotation to recuperate their fertility by allowing the paddy fields to fallow alternatively. 

The fall of the ancient hydraulic civilisation of Sri-Lanka in the 13th century was due to the sudden change of the Mahaweli river course due to natural causes and not due to foreign invasions, as the historians say. Scientific evidence is clearly seen in the aerial photographs of the old and the new Mahaweli River course. The ancient Mahaweli with its ancient Dagobas that were beside it like a string of pearls but today the Dagobas lies stranded, while the present river flows elsewhere with no Dagobas by it, which event took place 1220 AD? This sudden geological calamity changed the river course that sustained our ancient hydraulic civilisation. It led to disease and famine and resulted in the major part of the populace abandoning and moving to other areas. The change of the river course affected the great tanks to dry. The populace selected central wet zones and the wet zones as Kotte, Dambadeniya, Gampola, and Kandy to settle themselves along with their monarchy. 

The findings and observations by Professor Joseph Needham confirm that the original population of Heladiva were greatly developed and civilised and states thus, “Although an advanced system of ancient irrigation cannot be found in ancient Mesopotamia, Euphrates, Tigris or Indian River valleys, such system can be seen in Lanka. What is clearly visible is the fact that this knowledge did not belong to one generation only. That this advanced system has been systematically developed through generations on a basis of scientific principles”. 

Confirmed historical evidence is lacking of the pre-Vijaya era. It is not available, as no genuine investigation has been done. In the early era such developed irrigation systems did not exist in Mesopotamia, Euphrates, Tigris, and in the Indian River valleys, where recorded historical evidence is available. The historians are unable to state the influence the original populace of Heladiva had to build highly developed irrigation systems. These facts prove that they were the inventors of highly advanced irrigational and technical systems, as no historical evidence is available to believe that such knowledge came to Heladiva from another country. The bits and pieces of the remaining irrigational systems and its traces have to be considered, as the prototypes of irrigational systems of the original population of Heladiva, and the post-Vijaya Aryans inherited knowledge from them. 

The highly developed irrigation systems in primeval Heladiva are a matter of wonder to the present engineers. They accept the inheritance of a mental outfit and proper awareness of the primeval inhabitants but are unable to collect any data of the mechanical aids and instruments used. The methods of constructing channels were unique, as it did not impede with the mountains. It was a contour channelling process taking the canal round the hill. The characteristic feature the Helayo employed was the use of minimum land for irrigation and the water was used economically by an even flow in the distribution channels. The rainwater that fell into wet zone was collected into tanks and distributed extensively. The slopes employed by the ancient Sinhala engineers to channel the flow of water were 9-12 inches per mile. It did not permit weed growth or silt the bed of the channel. The present engineers with sophisticated equipment and the modern know-how find it difficult to apply such a low gradient successfully. They confirm that the ancient sluice discovered at Maduru Oya is a unique piece of greatly developed irrigation skill in the pre history. By adopting a hydraulic process water was carried to higher elevations and sprinkled, to the jasmine flowers that covered the Ruwanweliseya. How was the water pumped to the pond on top of the Sigiriya Rock? This was done even before Rawana’s period. One will be able to see in this great fortress when entering through the lion’s head a huge hole on the rock, and the stone structures that stand on top and bottom of this ‘route-hole’. It is alleged to be places on which the wooden lift had been fixed and operated. How this was done is not known nor is there is any material evidence remaining of this mechanism. The ancient Heladiva used lightening conductors to protect tall buildings such as Dagobas. All this was done in the pre history. When these specifics are taken into consideration a study has to be made whether Rawana used electronics to operate his air chariot. 

The most outstanding event that changed the entire Island was the arrival of the Buddhist Mission to Heladiva. It was in gratitude of the close friendship Emperor Asoka the Great of India had with King Devanampiyatissa of Heladiva. Emperor Asoka’s son Arahant Mahinda headed the mission and preached the Dhamma to King Devanampiyatissa and to the populace. Though Lord Buddha himself introduced Dhamma to Heladiva in the pre-Vijaya era it was declared the State religion in 307 BCE. It transformed Heladiva to a Buddhist State, socially, morally, spiritually, and materially. Thus the four clans, The Rakshas, Yakshas, Nagas, and the Devas who were the native populace and Indo Aryans shredded their differences and developed a civilisation that was Buddhist in spirit and Sinhale (Heladiva) in form. Since this transformation Helayo’s were Sinhalayo’s. 

Arahant from Middle East countries attended the pinnacle laying ceremony of Ruwanweliseya in Anuradhapura. Venerable Dhammarakkita Thera a Greek by nationality from Alexandria attended the ceremony with 30,000 Bhikkhus, while Venerable Uththinna of Kashmir attended it with 260,000 Bhikkhus. During this period the majorities in India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Maldives were Buddhists and it was the State Religion of India. 

History records that there were Buddhists in the Middle East extending to Mediterranean countries and it is also said that the Druids of Great Britain were Buddhists. If Druids were Buddhists, there would have been Buddhists in Europe as well. The first Buddhist statue was sculptured in Ghandhara; the present Karachchi, which is an Islamic country today. 

The bond between Buddha Dhamma and Sinhalayo’s are undividable. Today their culture is called Buddhist culture. The Teachings of the Buddha is denoted in our national flag. The lion denotes the Sinhala race. The sword denotes sovereignty of the country. The four [Bo] leaves at the corners denote the four clans that shredded their differences to make this country a Buddhist a country. Since then the Helayo or the Sinhalayo fostered and nurtured the Buddha Dhamma and protected it. 

It has been stated that Heladiva had been invaded by foreign powers on many occasions. They ruled Pihitirata for nearly 272 years but none were able to conquer the whole Island, except that she was handed over to the British by a Convention on March 10th 1815 AD.

Wednesday, 14 November 2012

The Bhavishya Purana

The Bhavishya Purana is an ancient text authored by Sri Vyasa Muni, the compiler of the Vedas. It is listed among the eighteen major Puranas. Bhavishya means "future" and Purana means "history", so the text's name would translate literally as "The History of the Future". Though the text was written many thousands of years before the recorded events took place, by the power of his mystic vision, Sri Vyasa was able to accurately predict the happenings of the modern times.

Modern scholars reject the contents of Bhavishya Purana mostly on the grounds that its information is too accurate. But we should ask ourselves: If there was an empowered saint, who knew past, present and future, and if he chose to write a book named "the History of the Future", shouldn't it contain accurate information about the modern times, as the title suggests? We cannot disqualify it simply because it speaks accurately of the British controlling India, Hittler fighting the world, and Max Mueller misrepresenting the Vedic teachings. "Veda" means knowledge, and the Vedic texts contain knowledge of everything - past, present and future.

Biblical and Modern History of Kali Yuga from Bhavishya Purana

[From the Pratisarga Parva, Chapters Four to Seven.]

Suta Goswami said: Once upon a time in Hastinapura, Pradyota the son of Kshemaka was leading an assembly and meanwhile the great sage Narada arrived there. King Pradyota happily honored him. Having him seated on the seat the sage told king Pradyota, "Your father was killed by the mlecchas, therefore he attained Yamaloka or the hellish planet. If you perform a ‘mleccha-yajna’, then by the effect of this sacrifice your father will attain the heavenly planets."

Hearing this king Pradyota immediately called the best of the learned brahmanas and started ‘mleccha-yajna’ in Kuruksetra. They built a yajna-kunda which was 16 yojanas in square (128 miles). They meditated on the demigods and offered oblations of mlecchas. There are haras, hunas, barvaras, gurundas, sakas, khasas, yavanas, pallavas, romajas and those who are situated in different dvipas and in kamaru, china and the middle of the ocean; all of them were called with the mantra and burnt to ashes. Then he (the king) gave dakshina (donation) to the brahmanas and performed abhiseka. As a result his father Kshemaka went to the heavenly planets. After that he became famous everywhere as a mleccha-hanta or destroyer of mlecchas. He ruled the earth for ten thousand years and went to heaven. He had a son named Vedavan who ruled for two thousand years.

At that time the Kali purusha prayed to Lord Narayana along with his wife. After sometime the Lord apperared to him and said, "This age will be a good time for you. I will fulfil your desire having various kinds of forms. There is a couple named Adama and his wife Havyavati. They are born from Vishnu-kardama and will increase the generations of mlecchas. Saying this, the Lord disappeared. Having great joy the Kali purusha went to Nilacha

Vyasa said: "Now you hear the future story narrated by Suta Goswami. This is the full story of of kali-yuga, hearing this you will become satisfied."

In the eastern side of Pradan city where there is a a big God-given forest, which is 16 square yojanas in size. The man named Adama was staying there under a Papa-Vriksha or a sinful tree and was eager to see his wife Havyavati. The Kali purusha quickly came there assuming the form of a serpent. He cheated them and they disobeyed Lord Vishnu. The husband ate the forbidden fruit of the sinful tree. They lived by eating air with the leaves called udumbara. After they had sons and all of them became mlecchas. Adama's duration of life was nine-hundred and thirty years. He offered oblations with fruits and went to heaven with his wife. His son was named Sveta-nama, and he lived nine-hundred and twelve years. Sveta-nama's son was Anuta, who rulled one-hundred years less than his father. His son Kinasa rulled as much as his grandfather. His son Malahalla ruled eight-hundred ninety five years. His son Virada rulled 160 years. His son Hamuka was devoted to Lord Vishnu, and offering oblations of fruits he achieved salvation. He ruled 365 years and went to heaven with the same body being engaged in mleccha-dharma.

having good behavior, wisdom, qualities like a brahmana and worship of God, these things are called mleccha-dharma. The great souls have declared that the dharma of the mleccha is devotion to God, worship of fire, nonviolence, austerity and control of the senses. The son of Hamuka was Matocchila. He ruled for 970 years. His son Lomaka ruled 777 years and went to heaven. His son Nyuha (Noah) ruled for 500 years. He had three sons named Sima, Sama and Bhava. Nyuha was a devotee of Lord Vishnu.

Once the Lord appeared in his dream and said: “My dear Nyuha, please listen, there will be devastation on the seventh day. Therefore, you have to be very quick that you make a big boat and ride in it. O chief of the devotees, you will be celebrated as a great king”.

Then he made a strong boat which was 300 feet long, 50 feet wide and 30 feet high. It was beautiful and all the living entities could take shelter in it. He then himself rode in it, engaged in meditating on Lord Vishnu.

Lord Indra called the devastating cloud named Sambartaka and poured heavy rain continuously for 40 days. The whole earth, Bharat-varsa, had merged in the water and four oceans came up together. Only Visala or Badarikasrama was not submerged. There were 80,000 great transcendentalists in Visala who joined with king Nyuha and his family. All of them were saved and everything else was destroyed.

At that time all the sages praised the eternal energy of Lord Vishnu. Being pleased by the prayers of the sages, the Vishnu-maya reduced the waters of devastation. After one year gradually the earth become visible. Under the hill there is a place named Sisina and the king was situated in that place with his other people. When the water completely dried up, king Nyuha came back to his place.

Suta Goswami continued: The mleccha, king Nyuha became attached to Lord Vishnu and as a result Lord Vishnu increased his generation. Then he created a language fit for the mlecchas, unfavorable to the Vedas. He named it as brahmi-bhasha, or brahmi language, full of bad words, for increasing the degradation of Kali-yuga. The Lord who is Himself the master of intelligence gave this language to Nyuha. Nyuha named his tree sons opposite. They were known as Sima, Hama, Yakuta and also Yakuta, Sapta putra, Jumara and Majuya. The name of their countries were known as Madi, Yunana, Stuvaloma, Tasa and Tirasa.

Hama who was the second son of his father, had four sons know as Kusa, Misra, Kuja and Kanaam. Kusa had six sons - Havila, Sarva, Toragama, Savatika, NimaruhaI and Mahavala. Their sons were known as Kamala, Sinara and Uraka. And their countries names are Akvada, Bavuna and Rasana.

After telling this story Suta Goswami influenced by Yoga-nidra entered mystic slumber. He woke up after two thousand years and thereupon he said: “Now I’m going to say about the generation of Sima. Because he was the first son of his father he became the king. This mleccha king ruled over the country for 500 years. His son Arkansoda ruled for 434 years. His son Sihla ruled for 460 years. His son Iratasya ruled the same length as his father. His son Phataja ruled for 240 years. His son Rau ruled for 237 years. His son Juja ruled the same length as his father. His son Nahura ruled for 160 years, and he destroyed his many inimical kings. His son Tahara ruled the same length as his father. He had three sons: Avirama, Nahura and Harana. Thus I have explained the generation of mlecchas with the indication of their names only. The mleccha language is considered the lowest language because it bears the curse of goddess Sarasvati. Thus I have summarily narrated the rise of the mlecchas in Kali-yuga.

Sanskrt is the language by which the whole Bharata-Varsa is being praised and glorified. The same language, after going to another country became the mleccha language and mlecchas took advantage of it.

After hearing all this, the sages situated in Badarikashrama, worshipped Lord Nara-Narayana and meditated upon them for 200 years. When they woke up from their meditation, they inquired from their teacher Suta Goswami:

“O disciple of Sri Vyasa, you are so fortunate and greatly intelligent, may you live long. Now please tell us who is the king at the present time?"

Suta Goswami said: “At the present time, the Kali-yuga has already passed its 3000 years. Now the king Sankha is ruling the earth and in the mleccha countries the king named Sakapat is ruling. Please hear about how they came up."

When the Kali-yuga passed 2000 years, the dynasty of mlecchas increased. They created many paths to grow and gradually the whole earth become full of mlecchas. The spiritual master and teacher of the mlecchas was named Musa. He was residing on the bank of the river Sarasvati, and he spread his doctrince throughout the whole world. As soon as Kali-yuga started, the devotion to the Lord and the language of the Vedas were destroyed. There are four kinds of mleccha languages: Vraja-bhasa, Maharastri, Yavani and Garundika. In this way there are four million kinds of other languages.

For example: paniyam (water) is called pani, bubhuksa-hunger is called bhukh. Paniyam-drinking is called papadi and bhojanam-eating si called kakkanam. Isti is called suddharava, istini is called masapavani, ahuti is called aju and dadati is called dadhati. The word pitri is called paitara and bhrata is bather and also pati. This is the yavani lanugage in which the asva is called aspa, Janu is jainu and sapta-sindhu is called sapta-hindu.

Now you hear about Gurundika language. Ravi-vara (the first day of the week) is called sunday, phalguna and chaitra months are called pharvari (February). Sasti is called sixty, these kinds of examples are there.

Crime is becoming prominent in the holy place of Sapta-puri. Gradually the people of Aryavata are becoming theives, hunters, bhillas and fools. The followers of mleccha-dharma in foreign countries are intelligent and having good qualities, whereas the people of Aryavarta are bereft of good qualities. Thus the ruling of mlecchas is also in Bharata (India) and its islands. Knowing all this, O great and intelligent sage, you should just perform the devotional service to Lord Hari.

The great sage Saunaka inquired: “Please tell us, what was the reason that the mlecchas did not arrive in Brahmavarta.

Suta Goswami said: That was by the influence of goddess Sarasvati that they could not enter that place. By the order of the demigods, when the Kali-yuga pursued his 1,000 years, a brahmana named Kasyapa come down to earth from the heavenly planets with his wife Aryavatil. They had ten spotless sons who are known by the names: Upadhayaya, Diksita, Pathaka, Sukla, Misra, Agnihotri, Dvi-vedi, Tri-vedi, Catur-vedi and Pandey. Among them was the learned one full of knowledge. He went to Kashmir and worshipped goddess Sarasvati with red flowers, red akshata (rice), incense, lamps, naivedya (food offerings) and puspanjali (flower offerings). To please her he praised her with some prayers, asking her for better knowledge of Sankrt to put mlecchas into illusion. Being pleased by his prayers she remainded situated in his mind and blessed him with knowledge. Then the sage went to the country known as Misra and put all the mlecchas into illusion by the greace of goddess Sarasvati.

Then he made 10,000 people as dvijas or twice born brahmanas; he made 2,000 people into vaishyas; and the rest of them as shudras. He came back with them and staying in Arya-desha (India) he engaged in the activites of the sages. They were known as Aryans and by the grace of goddess Sarasvati their generation gradually increased upto 4 million, both the men and women with their sons and grandsons. Their king, Kasyapa muni, ruled the earth for 120 years.

There were 8,000 sudras in the county known as Rajputra (Rajput) and their king was Arya-prithu. His son was Magadha. The sage made him a king and left.

Saunaka inquired: "O disciple of Vyasa, O Lomaharsana, please tell us who were the kings to rule the earth in Kali-yuga, after Magadha?"

Suta Goswami said: When king Magadha, the son of Kasyapa was ruling the earth, he remembered his father's administration and he separated the Arya-desha (India) into many states. The state which is on the eastern side of Pancala is known as Magadha, the state of Kalinga is on the east-south side, the state of Avanta is in the south, Amarta-desha is to the south-west, Sindhu-desha is on the western side, Kaikaya is to the north-west, Madra-desha is in the north, and Koninda-desha is to the north-east. These states are named according to his sons' names. After performing a sacrifice he gave the states to his sons. Lord Balabhadra became pleased with his sacrifice, and Sisunaga appeared from the sacrifice as his son. He ruled for 100 years and his son Kakavarma ruled for 90 years. His son Kshemadharma ruled for 80 years and his son ruled for 70 years. His son Vedamisra ruled for 60 years. His son Ajata-nipu ruled for 50 years. His son Darbhaka ruled for 40 years, his son Udayasva ruled for 30 years, his son Nanda-Vardhana ruled for 20 years, his son Nanda-suta, who was born from the womb of a sudri or a low class lady, also ruled for 20 years. His son Pranancala ruled for 10 years. His son Parananda also ruled 10 years. His son Samananda ruled for 20 years. His son Priyananta ruled for 20 years, his son Devananda also ruled for 20 years. his son Yajna-bhanga ruled for 10 years. His son Mauryananda ruled for 10 years. And his son Mahananda fuled for 10 years.

At this time Lord Hari was remembered by Kali. At that time the great and famous Gautama, the son of Kasyapa introduced the Buddhist religion, and attained Lord Hari in Pattana.

Gautama ruled over 10 years. From him Shakya muni was born, who ruled 20 years. His son Shuddhodana ruled 30 years. His son Shakyasimha became the king on Satadri after 2000 years and he ruled for 60 years, by which time all the people were Buddhists. This was the first position of Kali-yuga and the Vedic religion was destroyed.

If Lord Vishnu becomes a king then all the people would follow Him. The activities of the world are carried out by the prowess of Lord Vishnu. He is the master of maya or the illusory energy and whoever takes shelter of that Lord Hari, though he may be a sinful and abominable person, will become liberated.

Buddha-simha was born from Shakyasimha and he ruled for only 30 years. Buddha-simha’s son was Chandra-gupta, who married with a daughter of Suluva, the Yavana king of Pausasa. Thus he mixed the Buddhists and yavanas. He ruled for 60 years. From him Vindusara was born and ruled for the same number of years as his father. His son was Ashoka. At this time the best of the brahmanas, Kanyakubja, performed sacrifice on the top of a mountain named Arbuda. By the influence of Vedic mantras, four Kshatriyas appeared form the yajna. Among these four Pramara was samavedi, Chapahani was yajurvedi, Shukla was trivedi and Pariharaka was the Atharvavedi. They were accustomed to ride on elephants. They kept Ashoka under their control and annihilated all the Buddhists. It is said there were 4 million Buddhists and all of them were killed by uncommon weapons. After that Pramara became king in Avanta and he constructed a large city called Ambavati for his happiness. It was as big as 4 yojanas or about 32 miles.

Then Suta Goswami said: "My dear brahmanas I’m being influenced by yoga-nidra, therefore, please go to your respective ashramas and meditate on Lord Vishnu."

After the completion of 2,000 years, Suta Goswami said: When the kali-yuga had passed his 3,710 years, at that time the king was Pramara who rulled 6 years, from him Mahamada was born. He ruled 3 years and his son Devapi did the same. His son Devaduta also did the same. From him Gandharva-sena was born, who went to the forest after ruling for over 50 years and having given his kingdom to his son Shankha. Shankha ruled for over 30 years. Lord Indra sent a heavenly girl to Gandharva-sena named Viramati. A jewel like son was born form her womb. At the time of his birth, there were flowers raining from the sky, many auspicious instruments were played and the wind was blowing pleasingly. The name of the baby was Siva-drishti, who later left for the jungle with his disciples. After 20 years he became perfect in Karma-yoga. When kali-yuga copmleted 3,000 years, the terrible symptoms of kali had appeared. That baby took birth in the secret place of Kailasa, by the benediction of Lord Shiva, to destroy the shakas and to increase the Arya-dharma or the Vedic reigion. His father Gandharva-sena named his son as Vikramaditya and become happy. This child was very intelligent and very pleasing to his parents. When he was 5 years old, he left for the forest to perform austerities and he continued it upto 12 years. After 12 years he went to the holy city named Ambavati with all the opulence and accepted the transcendental throne sent by Lord Shiva. For his security goddess Parvati created a Vetala (a king of ghosts) and sent it to king Vikramaditya’s palace. Once the powerful king went to the temple of Lord Shiva named as Mahakaleshvara, who is the chief of the devas, and who has a bow named Pinaka. There he worshipped Lord Shiva. In that place he built a religious council hall with the pillars made of various metals and decorated with many kinds of jewels and covered with so many plants and creepers and flowers. In that hall he kept a celestial throne. He invited the foremost brahmanas who are well-versed in Vedic knowledge, worshipped them with proper hospitality and heard many religious histories from them. After that one demigod named Vitala come there having a form of a brahmana. Glorifying and blessing the king, he sat down on the seat and said: O master of this earthly planet, king Vikramaditya, if you are very eager to hear them I will describe the stories and histories to you.

Thursday, 8 November 2012

1900 Year Old Potsherd with Tamil-Brahmi script found in Oman in 2006 ‘Discovered’ Now

The potsherd found in Oman in 2006. The Tamil-Brahmi script on it can be dated to the first century CE

The potsherd found in Oman in 2006. The Tamil- Brahmi script on it can be dated to the first century CE.

A Tamil-Brahmi script inscribed on a potsherd, which was found at the Khor Rori area in Oman, has come to light now. The script reads “nantai kiran” and it can be dated to first century CE, that is, 1900 years before the present.

The discovery in the ancient city of Sumhuram has opened a new chapter in understanding the maritime trade of the Indian Ocean countries, according to specialists in history.
It was by chance that the potsherd was sighted. Alexia Pavan, an Italian archaeologist, had displayed the potsherd during an international ceramic workshop on “The Indian Ocean Trade and the Archaeology of Technology at Pattanam in Kerala” held in September in Kochi.

P.J. Cherian, Director, Kerala Council of Historical Research (KCHR), and Roberta Tomber of the British Museum, London, had jointly organised the workshop. Pottery from several Indian Ocean countries was on display during the workshop. K. Rajan, Professor, Department of History, Pondicherry University, D. Dayalan, Regional Director, Archaeological Survey of India, and V. Selvakumar, Head of the Department of Epigraphy and Archaeology, Tamil University, Thanjavur, spotted the potsherd displayed by Dr. Pavan.

The Italian Mission to Oman (IMTO) had found this potsherd during its second archaeological excavation in 2006 in the Khor Rori area. The Director of the excavation was Alessandra Avanzini and Dr. Pavan was part of the team. Since 1997, the Mission of University of Pisa, forming part of the IMTO, has been working in Oman in two sites: Sumhuram in Khor Rori and Salut in Nizwa.

Personal name

The potsherd was found in a residential area of Sumhuram city. Dr. Pavan said it was part of a lid made by reusing the shoulder of an amphora. Soot traces visible along the external ridge suggest the use of the lid for a cooking pot. The sherd was discovered in a layer mixed with a few pottery pieces and animal bones, “which [layer] corresponds to one of the most important constructional phase of the city, to be dated to the first century CE,” she said.

So the sherd could be dated to first century CE or a little earlier. There was so much of Indian material, including beads, coins and pottery, discovered during the excavation that it was important to show the relationship between India and the southern coast of Oman, she added.

The script “nantai kiran,” signifying a personal name, has two components, Dr. Rajan said. The first part “[n] antai” is an honorific suffix to the name of an elderly person. For instance, “kulantai-campan,” “antai asutan,” “korrantai” and so on found in Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions could be cited. The second component “Kiran” also stands for a personal name.

More than 20 poets of the Tamil Sangam age [circa third century BCE to third century CE] have “kiran” as part of their personal names. “Thus, the broken piece of the pot carries the personal name of an important trader who commanded a high regard in the trading community,” Dr. Rajan argued.

It was generally believed that India’s contact with the Mediterranean world began with the Roman trade and much of the studies were concentrated on the Red Sea ports such as Quseir al-Qadim and Berenike, both in Egypt. While the excavation at Quseir al-Qadim yielded potsherds with the Tamil-Brahmi texts reading “kanan,” “catan” and “panai ori,” the one found at Berenike was engraved with the Tamil-Brahmi script “korrapuman.”

The latest discovery in Oman was significant as it opened a new avenue in understanding the impact of the Indian Ocean trade, particularly on the west coast of the peninsular India, Dr. Rajan said. The region was known for frankincense and there was a possibility that trade in horses could also have taken place in these ports. (Frankincense is an aromatic gum resin used for burning as incense).

“Excavations by the University of Pisa have confirmed Sumhuram’s link with the ancient frankincense route and its cultural links with the frankincense-based kingdoms in southern Arabia,” Dr. Rajan said.

In the context of the advanced scholarship available on Tamil-Brahmi, estimated Dr. Cherian, this epigraphic evidence from Khor Rori had a great significance. “To the best of my knowledge, Khor Rori is the first South Arabian site to yield epigraphic evidence of the early historic phase [that is, when written records began].”

Earlier, in the Mediterranean maritime trade network, only Myos Hormos and Berenike (on the Red Sea coast of Egypt) and a few sites in Sri Lanka had produced Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions outside India.

The importance of Khor Rori rested on the fact that it was an important pre-Islamic port-city in the ancient Indian Ocean exchanges between the Mediterranean region and India, Dr. Cherian said. The port of Sumhuram could be dated to circa third century BCE to fourth century ACE.

This site could be crucial in tracing the maritime history of the Red Sea, the South Arabian and the Mesopotamian coasts and their hinterlands which could have played a pivotal role in the long-distance maritime trade between Tamilakam and the Mediterranean between the first century BCE and the fourth century CE, he added.

“It is unfortunate that the geographical and the cultural significance of the South Arabian region and its links with ancient south India has not been properly studied for various reasons,” said Dr. Cherian, who recently did field studies in Oman including at Sumhuram (Khor Rori) and the nearby Al Baleed sites.

The Euro-centric perspectives that became dominant after the Roman Empire seem to have erased more history than they probably produced anew. In the absence of textual evidence for the early historic period, he said, archaeological evidence and to some extent, anthropological sources such as myths were the available means to retrieve such lost histories.

Dr. Cherian added: “This artefact with a post-firing Tamil-Brahmi script is, therefore, a find with a dual significance both as material and textual evidence. The challenge now is to seek associated archaeological finds from elsewhere, especially peninsular India.”

Brisk trade activity

The substantial quantity — the largest-ever assemblage from any Indian site — of 3,384 torpedo jar fragments and 1,720 turquoise glazed pottery from Pattanam suggested the brisk trade activity between Tamilakam and the South Arabian regions. (The KCHR, in association with other agencies has been excavating the Pattanam site, near Ernakulam, from 2007.

Archaeologists feel that Pattanam could be Muziris/Muciri, which was a flourishing port on the west coast during the Tamil Sangam age, which coincided with the classical period in the West).

“The presence of frankincense crumbs in almost all trenches at Pattanam is yet another indication of the site’s connection with South Arabia, including Khor Rori and the Al Baleed region, famed as the ‘land of incense’,” Dr. Cherian said

Monday, 15 October 2012

Period of Hindu Kingdoms

Many well-organized kingdoms with a high degree of civilization were ruled by indigenous kings who had adopted the Hindu or Buddhist religion. This explains why this period in history is called the Period of Hindu Kingdoms. It lasted from ancient times to the 16th Century AD. Because the culture and civilization, which emanated from the Hindu and Buddhist religions, were syncretized with the local cultural elements, the period was also referred to as the Hindu-Indonesian period.

Indian culture and customs were introduced, such as the system of government in a monarchy, the ancestry system, the organization of military troops, literature, music and dances, architecture, religious practices and rituals, and even the division of laborers into castes or varnas. The Hindu literary works known as Vedas and the “Mahabharata” and “Ramayana” epics were also introduced through the wayang, or shadow-play performance, which is still very popular in many parts of present day Indonesia.

The first Indian Buddhists arrived in Indonesia between the 1st and 2nd Centuries AD. They brought with them Buddhism in its two sects, Hinayana and Mahayana. The latter became more advanced in the 8th Century AD. With the spread of Buddhism to China many Chinese pilgrims sailed to India through the strait of Malacca. On their way, some stopped and temporarily stayed in Indonesia to learn more about Buddhism. In 144 AD a Chinese Buddhist saint, Fa Hsien, was caught in a storm and landed in Java-Dwipa, or Java island, where he stayed for five months. The northern part of the island was then ruled by an Indonesian Hindu King named Kudungga. Kutai, on the island of Borneo, was successively ruled by the Hindu kings Devawarman, Aswawarman and Mulawarman.

When the Greek explorer and geographer, Ptolemy of Alexandria, wrote on Indonesia, he named either the island of Java or Sumatra “abadiou”. His chronicles described Java as a country with a good system of government and advanced agriculture, navigation and astronomy. There was even mention of the “batik” printing process of cloth that the people already knew. They also made metalware, used the metric system and printed coins. Chinese chronicles of 132 AD described the existence of diplomatic regions between Java-Dwipa and China. Ink and paper had already been in use in China since the 2nd Century AD. Around 502 AD Chinese annals mentioned the existence of the Buddhist Kingdom, Kanto Lim in South Sumatra, presumably in the neighborhood of present-day Palembang. It was ruled by king Gautama Subhadra, and later by his son Pyrawarman of Vinyawarman who established diplomatic relations with China.

Because of a spelling or pronunciation difficulty, what the Chinese called “Kanto Li” was probably Crivijaya, a mighty Buddhist kingdom. On his way to India, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, I Tsing, visited Crivijaya in 671 AD to study the Sanskrit language. He returned 18 years later, in 689 AD Crivijaya was then the center of Buddhist learning and had many well-known philosophy scholars like Sakyakirti, Dharmapala and Vajabudhi. The kingdom had diplomatic relations with the south Indian kingdom of Nalanda. The Crivijaya mission built a school on its premises where Indians could learn the art of molding bronze statues and broaden their knowledge of the Buddhist philosophy. With the spread of Buddhism, Crivijaya’s influence reached out to many other parts of the archipelago.

Another known Buddhist kingdom was Cailendra in Central Java. It was ruled by the kings of Cailendra Dynasty. During their rule (750-850 AD) the famous Buddhist temple, Borobudur, was built. In 772 AD other Buddhist temple were also build. They include the Mendut, Kalasan and Pawon temples. All of these temples are now preserved as tourist objects near the city of Yogyakarta.

The Cailendra kingdom was also known for its commercial and naval power, and its flourishing arts and culture. A guide to team singing, known as the Chandra Cha-ana, was first written in 778 AD. One of the Pallawa language-stone inscriptions of 732 AD mentioned the name of King Sanjaya, who was later identified as the king of Mataram, a kingdom that replaced Cailendra in Central Java. The Prambanan temple, which was dedicated to Lord Civa, was started in 856 AD and completed in 900 AD by King Daksa. Earlier Civa temples were built in 675 AD on the Dieng mountain range, southwest of Medang Kamolan, the capital of the Mataram Kingdom.

In West Java were the kingdoms of Galuh, Kanoman, Kuningan and Pajajaran. The latter was founded by King Purana with Pakuan as its capital. It replaced the kingdom of Galuh. The kingdoms of Taruma Negara, Kawali and Parahyangan Sunda came later.

At the end of the 13th Century, the Crivijaya Empire began to fall as a result of severance by its vassal states and frequent attacks by the south Indian kingdom of Chola and by the Majapahit Kingdom. In the end, Crivijaya was completely conquered by Majapahit with the support of King Aditiawarman of the Melayu kingdom. Earlier, Majapahit had conquered the kingdom of Jambi in East Sumatra and, by moving its expansion along the rivers, it finally annexed the kingdom of Pagar Ruyung in West Sumatra. Thus, all of Sumatra came under Majapahit’s rule. Meanwhile, for unknown reasons, the mighty kingdoms of Central Java disappeared from historic records and new prosperous kingdom emerged in East Java.

King Balitung, who ruled between 820 and 832 AD, succeeded in uniting the Central and East Java kingdoms. The disappearance of records was presumably caused by a natural disaster or an epidemic. At the end of the 10th Century (911-1007 AD) the powerful kingdom of Singasari emerged in East Java under King Dharmawangsa. He codified laws and translated into Javanese the “Mahabharata” epic and its basic philosophy, as exposed in the Bhisma Parva scripture. He also ordered the 12 translations of the Hindu holy book, the Bhagavat Gita.

Meanwhile, the island of Bali was ruled by King Airlangga, known as a wise and strong ruler. He had water-works built along the Brantas River that are still in use today. Before his death in 1409 AD he divided his kingdom into the kingdoms of Janggala and Daha or Kediri. These were to be ruled by his two sons. Under Airlangga’s rule literary works flourished. The Panji novels written during this period are still popular today. They are even taught in the art faculties of the universities in Thailand, Kampuchea and Malaysia.

King Jayabaya of Kediri 1135-1157 wrote a book in which he foretold the downfall of Indonesia. Subsequently, so he wrote, the country would be ruled by a white race, to be followed by a yellow race. His prediction turned out to be Dutch colonial rule and the Japanese occupation of the country during World War. However, Jayabaya also predicted that Indonesia would ultimately regain her independence. During the golden period of the Kediri Kingdom many other literary works were produced, including the Javanese version of the Mahabharata by Mpu (saint) Sedah and his brother Mpu Panuluh. This work was published in 1157.

The kingdoms of East Java were later succeeded by the Majapahit Kingdom, first ruled by Prince Wiiaya who was also known as King Kartarajasa. The Moghul emperor, Kubilai Khan attempted to invade Majapahit. His troops, however, were defeated and driven back to their ships. As Majapahit grew to become a powerful empire, it conquered the kingdom of Crivijaya in South Sumatra. As mentioned earlier, this kingdom has once been attacked by the Indian kingdom of Chola.

Under King Hayam Wuruk the Majapahit Empire became the most powerful kingdom in the history of Indonesia. It had dependencies in territories beyond the borders of the present archipelago, such as Champa in North Vietnam, Kampuchea and the Philippines (1331-1364). King Hayam Wuruk, with his able premier Gajah Mada, succeeded in gradually uniting the whole archipelago under the name of Dwipantara. During this golden period of Majapahit many literary works were produced.

Among them was “Negara Kertagama,” by the famous author Prapancha (1335-1380). Parts of the book described the diplomatic and economic ties between Majapahit and numerous Southeast Asian countries including Myanmar, Thailand, Tonkin, Annam, Kampuchea and even India and China. Other works in Kawi, the old Javanese language, were “Pararaton,” “Arjuna Wiwaha,” “Ramayana,” and “Sarasa Muschaya.” These works were later translated into modern European languages for educational purposes.

Sunday, 24 June 2012

The Four Ages of Man - The 4 Stages of Life in Hinduism

Shakespeare divided life into "seven ages". In Hinduism, human life is believed to comprise four stages. These are called "ashramas" and every man should ideally go through each of these stages:
The First Ashrama - "Brahmacharya" or the Student Stage
The Second Ashrama - "Grihastha" or the Householder Stage
The Third Ashrama - "Vanaprastha" or the Hermit Stage
The Fourth Ashrama - "Sannyasa" or the Wandering Ascetic Stage
Brahmacharya - The Celibate Student:

This is a period of formal education. It lasts until the age of 25, during which, the young male leaves home to stay with a guru and attain both spiritual and practical knowledge. During this period, he is called a brahmachari, and is prepared for his future profession, as well as for his family, and social and religious life ahead.
Grihastha - The Married Family Man:

This period begins when a man gets married, and undertakes the responsibility for earning a living and supporting his family. At this stage, Hinduism supports the pursuit of wealth (artha) as a necessity, and indulgence in sexual pleasure (kama), under certain defined social and cosmic norms. This ashrama lasts until around the age of 50. According to the Laws of Manu, when a person's skin wrinkles and his hair greys, he should go out into the forest. However, in real life, most Hindus are so much in love with this second ashrama that the Grihastha stage lasts a lifetime!
Vanaprastha - The Hermit in Retreat:

This stage of a man begins when his duty as a householder comes to an end: He has become a grandfather, his children are grown up, and have established lives of their own. At this age, he should renounce all physical, material and sexual pleasures, retire from his social and professional life, leave his home, and go to live in a forest hut, spending his time in prayers. He is allowed to take his wife along, but is supposed to maintain little contact with the family. This kind of life is indeed very harsh and cruel for an aged person. No wonder, this third ashrama is now nearly obsolete.
Sannyasa - The Wandering Recluse:

At this stage, a man is supposed to be totally devoted to God. He is a sannyasi, he has no home, no other attachment; he has renounced all desires, fears and hopes, duties and responsibilities. He is virtually merged with God, all his worldly ties are broken, and his sole concern becomes attaining moksha, or release from the circle of birth and death. (Suffice it to say, very few Hindu men can go up to this stage of becoming a complete ascetic.) When he dies, the funeral ceremonies (Pretakarma) are performed by his son and heir.
What About Women?:

Although these ashramas are predominantly designed for the male, females too have a vital role to play in each one of them. So women are not actually excluded because they are always supposed to have an active social and religious life at home. However, a woman's role is of a dependent nature since, traditionally, they need the protection of a responsible male at every stage of life.

Saturday, 26 November 2011


Agama baru di pulau cinta

21 NOV — Baru-baru ini, semasa berkunjung ke sebuah pusat peranginan terkemuka, saya berpeluang bertemu sekumpulan belia pelbagai etnik.

Mereka menghadiri suatu program kaunseling berkumpulan yang diatur badan tertentu.

Kisah yang mereka ceritakan kepada saya amat menyentuh perasaan dan wajar dikongsikan bersama orang ramai. Malah, demikian juga permintaan 12 individu berkenaan.

Bagaimanapun, mereka meminta identiti diri dirahsiakan. Saya juga akan menggunakan frasa “Agama Asal” dan “Agama Baru” kerana artikel ini bukan berkaitan mana-mana agama, sebaliknya berkaitan manusia yang menjadi mangsa dan pemangsa atas nama agama.

“Kami diwajibkan menghadiri sesi kaunseling individu sebanyak sebelas kali. Selepas itu, kami perlu menyertai sesi kaunseling berkumpulan. Semua ini sudah mengambil masa empat tahun. Hanya selepas ini, kononnya kes kami akan dibawa ke mahkamah,” seorang menceritakan.

“Malah, kaunselor sudah memaklumkan bahawa pihaknya akan meminta kebenaran mahkamah untuk mengadakan sebelas lagi sesi kaunseling sebelum kes diteruskan,” seorang lagi menambah.

Kemudian, seorang demi seorang menceritakan kisah masing-masing. Pertemuan tanpa dirancang itu menjadi semacam sesi kaunseling berkumpulan untuk meluahkan apa yang terbuku dalam hati.

“Bapa saya tinggalkan Agama Asal dan masuk Agama Baru beberapa tahun selepas berkahwin. Emak tak ada pelajaran, lalu dia tukar agama akibat pujukan dan tipu-helah bapa. Kata bapa, perlu tukar agama sahaja, tak perlu amalkan. Kemudian, bapa mula halang emak sambut perayaan berkaitan Agama Asal,” seorang pekerja swasta menceritakan.

Apabila anak-anak lahir, bapa berkenaan berkata, wajib tukar ke Agama Baru demi masa depan anak-anak sebelum mereka masuk sekolah.

Akan tetapi seluruh keluarga itu tidak pernah mengamalkan tuntutan Agama Baru; sebaliknya sentiasa mengamalkan ajaran Agama Asal.

“Kemudian, suatu hari, bapa meninggalkan keluarga semasa saya berumur lima tahun. Emak berjaya kembali ke Agama Asal. Begitu juga kakak dan abang,” katanya sambil menahan sebak.

Hanya dia yang “tersekat”. Semasa berumur 10 tahun, emaknya cuba menukar agama kanak-kanak itu kembali ke Agama Asal tetapi diberitahu pegawai tertentu bahawa hanya individu terbabit boleh menentukan agama pilihan apabila mencapai umur 18 tahun.

“Semasa di sekolah menengah, saya sering menjadi mangsa diskriminasi dan penghinaan atas nama kaunseling oleh guru-guru tertentu. Saya terasa amat marah tetapi terpaksa tanggung semua itu demi pengajian,” individu itu meluahkan.

Seterusnya, semasa menyambung pelajaran di kolej, dia dinasihatkan supaya menangguhkan dahulu niat membawa kes ke mahkamah kerana tidak mahu pelajaran terjejas akibat komplikasi yang mungkin wujud.

“Selepas tamat belajar dan mula bekerja, saya menghantar permohonan untuk kembali ke Agama Asal. Sudah lima tahun, belum ada sebarang keputusan. Malah, kes belum dibawa ke mahkamah,” dia mengakhiri ceritanya.

Kesemua individu yang saya temui di pusat peranginan itu mengakui bahawa semasa sesi kaunseling, kaunselor akan mengutuk dan menghina Agama Asal semahu-mahunya; kononnya untuk menyedarkan mereka tentang kehebatan Agama Baru.

“Kesan psikologi yang berlaku adalah sebaliknya; kami semakin menyampah, kecewa dan mula membenci Agama Baru,” seorang pemuda menyimpulkan.

“Kami tahu bahawa Agama Baru itu tidak bersalah. Ajaran sebenar yang terkandung dalam Agama Baru — atau mana-mana agama — adalah amat baik,” kata seorang lagi.

“Tapi akibat sikap buruk kaunselor yang menghina dan mengutuk semua agama selain Agama Baru membuatkan kami semakin menyampah dan pintu hati tertutup rapat,” sambung rakannya.

Pada pandangan seorang lagi: “Kalau kami mahu dipancung sekali pun, hati kami tidak akan terbuka untuk mengaku kami penganut Agama Baru. Semua ini akibat sikap buruk yang ditunjukkan oleh kaunselor yang kononnya mahu membawa kami kembali ke pangkal jalan.”

Seorang lagi pemuda berasal daripada keluarga di mana si bapa adalah kaki botol serta sering bergaduh dan memaki-hamun anak-isteri.

Akibatnya, semasa berumur 12 tahun, dia berhenti sekolah, tinggal di asrama dan bekerja di sebuah kilang. Dia sering menangis mengenangkan nasib dirinya.

Pada waktu itu, rakan-rakan yang bekerja di kilang berkenaan memujuknya supaya meninggalkan Agama Asal dan memeluk Agama Baru; kononnya akan menyelesaikan segala masalah dalam hidup.

“Saya yang masih mentah mengikut sahaja dengan harapan dapat mengubah hidup. Malangnya tiada apa-apa perubahan. Rakan-rakan yang kononnya mahu membantu, mula menjauhkan diri selepas saya meninggalkan Agama Asal dan memeluk Agama Baru,” katanya dengan kecewa.

Menurutnya lagi, semasa berumur 16 tahun, dia menyedari apa yang berlaku dan mahu kembali ke Agama Asal.

“Malangnya, terdapat pelbagai halangan dan sekatan dikenakan. Umur saya kini 25 tahun dan perjuangan saya untuk secara sah kembali ke Agama Asal masih berterusan.”

Kes lain adalah berkaitan seorang pemuda yang bercinta dengan gadis berlainan agama.

“Saya bersedia untuk meninggalkan Agama Asal dan memeluk Agama Baru kerana perkara itu yang menjadi faktor penghalang utama untuk kami bersatu,” pemuda itu berkongsi kisah.

Malangnya, selepas itu, ibu bapa kekasihnya tetap tidak membenarkan mereka berkahwin kerana berlainan kaum.

“Kini saya terbuang, tersisih dan terumbang-ambing. Saya tidak boleh berkahwin dengan gadis yang saya cintai dan saya juga tidak dibenarkan kembali ke Agama Asal berikutan karenah pihak tertentu,” katanya.

Seorang lagi menceritakan bahawa bapanya dulu masuk Agama Baru untuk berkahwin. Sejak kecil, mereka sekeluarga tidak pernah mengamalkan Agama Baru.

“Saya juga tertarik pada Agama Asal, iaitu agama asal bapa saya. Enam tahun lalu, saya berkenalan dengan seorang pemuda daripada Agama Asal. Kami sudah berkahwin mengikut upacara Agama Asal,” dia mendedahkan.

Semasa mengandungkan anak sulung, dia dan suami memutuskan untuk menggugurkan kandungan kerana tidak mahu anak yang lahir menjadi mangsa perebutan antara Agama Asal dan Agama Baru.

“Begitu juga anak kedua. Kini saya mengandung lima bulan. Saya tidak tahu nasib anak ini apabila lahir nanti,” wanita itu menceritakan.

Kesemua individu berkenaan mengatakan bahawa mereka tidak tahu berapa lama kes mereka akan berlarutan atas alasan sesi kaunseling yang sebenarnya — kata mereka — lebih merupakan sesi penderaan mental dan sesi mengutuk agama-agama lain.

“Bayangkan, orang lain berhak untuk bercinta, berkahwin dan mempunyai anak. Kami pula tidak mampu menikmati semua itu kerana dihalang dan terhalang,” kata seorang.

“Masakan kami mahu berkahwin dengan individu daripada Agama Baru semata-mata untuk menikmati hidup berkeluarga sedangkan hati dan jiwa kami bersama Agama Asal,” soal seorang lagi.

Dalam kes lain, seorang pemuda bercinta dengan teman sekerja. Untuk membolehkan mereka berkahwin, dia meninggalkan Agama Asal dan memeluk Agama Baru.

“Setahun kemudian, isteri saya menuntut cerai kerana mahu berkahwin dengan lelaki lain. Terus-terang, saya hanya meninggalkan Agama Asal untuk berkahwin. Saya tidak pernah walau sedikit pun mengamalkan ajaran Agama Baru,” katanya.

Selepas bercerai, dia mahu kembali ke Agama Asal kerana jiwa dan raganya tetap bersama ajaran agama itu.

“Malangnya, usaha, niat dan impian saya disekat dan dihalang dengan pelbagai cara dan alasan. Sedangkan bekas isteri saya sudah berkahwin lain dan ada dua anak bersama suami barunya,” ujarnya dengan kecewa.

Dalam kes lain pula, seorang gadis bercinta dengan seorang pemuda yang memujuknya meninggalkan Agama Asal dan memeluk Agama Baru supaya mereka boleh berkahwin.

“Tetapi tidak sampai lima bulan selepas saya tukar agama, pemuda itu menghilangkan diri. Saya dapat tahu daripada kawan-kawannya bahawa dia memang tidak berniat mengahwini saya, sebaliknya mahu menambah pengikut Agama Baru,” dia menceritakan.

Sebaik menyedari dirinya ditipu, gadis itu berusaha kembali ke Agama Asal tetapi dihalang dengan pelbagai cara.

“Bayangkan: Apabila saya meninggalkan Agama Asal dan memeluk Agama Baru, prosesnya amat mudah dan tak ada apa-apa masalah,” katanya.

“Benar! Tetapi apabila kami mahu kembali ke Agama Asal, sekatan yang pelbagai dikenakan; termasuk menghina kami dan Agama Asal kami,” individu lain dalam kumpulan itu menyahut.

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Bhavishya Purana : The Prediction of Islam And Muhammad

Bhavishya Purana : The Prediction of Islam And Muhammad

According to Bhavishya purana

Mahamada (Incarnation of Tripurasura the demon) = Dharmadushika (Polluter of righteousness)

Religion founded by Mahamada = Paisachyadharama (demoniac religion)


Original Sanskrit Version
Bhavishya Puran: Prati Sarg: Part III:3,3 5-27

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Bhavishya purana (futuristic mythology)(Circa 3000 B.C)

source (
[From the third part of the Pratisarga Parva.]

Shri Suta Gosvami said: In the dynasty of king Shalivahana, there were ten kings who went to the heavenly planets after ruling for over 500 years. Then gradually the morality declined on the earth. At that time Bhojaraja was the tenth of the kings on the earth. When he saw that the moral law of conduct was declining he went to conquer all the directions of his country with ten-thousand soldiers commanded by Kalidasa. He crossed the river Sindhu and conquered over the gandharas, mlecchas, shakas, kasmiris, naravas and sathas. He punished them and collected a large ammount of wealth. Then the king went along with Mahamada (Muhammad), the preceptor of mleccha-dharma, and his followers to the great god, Lord Shiva, situated in the desert. He bathed Lord Shiva with Ganges water and worshipped him in his mind with pancagavya (milk, ghee, yoghurt, cow dung, and cow urine) and sandalwood paste, etc. After he offered some prayers and pleased him.

Suta Goswami said: After hearing the king’s prayers, Lord Shiva said: O king Bhojaraja, you should go to the place called Mahakakshvara, that land is called Vahika and now is being contaminated by the mlecchas. In that terrible country there no longer exists dharma. There was a mystic demon named Tripura(Tripurasura), whom I have already burnt to ashes, he has come again by the order of Bali. He has no origin but he achieved a benediction from me. His name is Mahamada(Muhammad) and his deeds are like that of a ghost. Therefore, O king, you should not go to this land of the evil ghost. By my mercy your intelligence will be purified. Hearing this the king came back to his country and Mahamada(Muhammad) came with them to the bank of the river Sindhu. He was expert in expanding illusion, so he said to the king very pleasingly: O great king, your god has become my servant. Just see, as he eats my remnants, so I will show you. The king became surprised when he saw this just before them. Then in anger Kalidasa rebuked Mahamada(Muhammad) “O rascal, you have created an illusion to bewilder the king, I will kill you, you are the lowest..."

That city is known as their site of pilgrimage, a place which was Madina or free from intoxication. Having a form of a ghost (Bhuta), the expert illusionist Mahamada(Muhammad) appeared at night in front of king Bhojaraja and said: O king, your religion is of course known as the best religion among all. Still I am going to establish a terrible and demoniac religion by the order of the Lord . The symptoms of my followers will be that they first of all will cut their genitals, have no shikha, but having beard, be wicked, make noise loudly and eat everything. They should eat animals without performing any rituals. This is my opinion. They will perform purificatory act with the musala or a pestle as you purify your things with kusha. Therefore, they will be known as musalman, the corrupters of religion. Thus the demoniac religion will be founded by me. After having heard all this the king came back to his palace and that ghost(Muhammad) went back to his place.

The intelligent king, Bhojaraj established the language of Sanskrit in three varnas - the brahmanas, kshatriyas and vaisyas - and for the shudras he established prakrita-bhasha, the ordinary language spoken by common men. After ruling his kingdom for 50 years, he went to the heavenly planet. The moral laws established by him were honored even by the demigods. The arya-varta, the pious land is situated between Vindhyacala and Himacala or the mountains known as Vindhya and Himalaya. The Aryans reside there, but varna-sankaras reside on the lower part of Vindhya. The musalman people were kept on the other side of the river Sindhu.

On the island of Barbara, Tusha and many others also the followers of Isamsiha were also situated as they were managed by a king or demigods.

Note This

Lord Shiva said: O king Bhojaraja, you should go to the place called Mahakakshvara, that land is called Vahika and now is being contaminated by the mlecchas. In that terrible country there no longer exists dharma. There was a mystic demon named Tripura(Tripurasur), whom I have already burnt to ashes, he has come again by the order of Bali. He has no origin but he achieved a benediction from me. His name is Mahamada(Muhammad) and his deeds are like that of a ghost.

According to Bhavishya Purana Muhammad was the rebirth of Tripurasura the Demon.

Tripurasura was killed by Shiva in his(Tripurasura’s) past life.

Tripurasura's Past life (Mythology[not from bhavishya purana])


Tripurasur was the son of Sage Gritsamad. One day the sage sneezed and from this was created a young boy who the Sage brought up as his own son. The sage taught the boy the Ganana Twam, Ganesh Mantra. Equipped with this mantra the boy meditated intensely on Lord Ganesh who ultimately blessed him. He was given three pura-s of gold silver and iron. Since he was the owner of these three pura-s he was given the name Tripur. Ganesh also bestowed on Tripur to be the most powerful, who none but Lord Shiva himself could destroy and after being destroyed by Lord Shiva he would attain mukti-salvation.

This boon made Tripur proud and he brought havoc in the entire world. He conquered the Nether world and then proceeded to takeover Heaven. He defeated Indra the king of heaven. His aggression made Lord Brahma hide in a lotus and Lord Vishnu in the Shirsagar. He soon also took over Lord Shiva’s Kailash Parvat and thus became the King of all the three worlds. The gods wondered on how to vanquish Tripurasur. Lord Narada told them that, since he had been granted a boon by Lord Ganesh himself it would be very difficult to vanquish him. He advised them to meditate on Lord Ganesh. Pleased Lord Ganesh decided to help the Gods.

Disguised as brahmin he visited Tripurasur and told him that he was a very enlightened Brahmin and could make for him three flying planes. Riding these he woud be able to go anywhere he wished within minutes. The planes could only be destroyed by Shiva.In return Lord Ganesh asked him to get him the statue of Chintamani which was at the Kailash Mountain. Lord Shiva refused to give the statue to Tripurasur’s messenger. The angry Tripurasur himself went to get the statue. A fierce battle started between him and Lord Shiva. He destroyed everything that belonged to the Lord Shiva who too retired to the Girikandar.

Lord Shiva too realized that he was unable to destroy Tripurasur because he had not paid his respects to Lord Ganesh. He recited the Shadaakshar Mantra to invoke Ganesh. On doing so from his mouth emerged Gajanan to grant Shiva a boon. Shiva continued his invocation of Ganesh who ultimately directed him on how Tripurasur could be killed. Lord Shiva was asked to recite the Sahastranam and then direct an arrow at the three pura-s of Tripurasur.

Lord Shiva followed these instructions and finally vanquished Tripurasur.

The place where Lord Shiva invoked Lord Ganesh he also created a temple for him. The town surrounding this temple was called Manipur. The village Ranjangaon is considered to be the place where Lord Shiva himself sought the blessings of Ganesh and ultimately destroyed Tripurasur.

The truth in mythology is not in its medium (the story) but in its message .


This prayer (chalisa) praises the Lord Shiva (Related to Tripurasura killing)

Tripurasur sang yuddha machayi,
sabahin kripa kari leen bachayi.

By fighting and killing the Demon Tripurasur,
You forgave everybody and saved the Gods.


Mlechha (meaning)
(from Sanskrit dictionary)

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म्लेच्छ mleccha
1 A barbarian,a non Aryan ( One not speaking the Sanskrit Language or not conform in to Hindu or Aryan institutions),a foreigner in general
2 An Outcast, a very low man, Bodhayana thus defines the word:

gomAmsakhAdako yastu viruddhaM bahubhAshhate | sarvAchAravihInashcha mlechchha ityabhidhiiyate |

He who eats cow's meat, and speaks a lot against shastras and he, who is also devoid of all forms of spiritual practice, is called a mlechha.

3 A sinner, A wicked person, A savage or barbarian race


Paisachya (meaning)
(from Sanskrit dictionary)

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Demonical, Infernal

Asura (meaning)
(from Sanskrit dictionary)

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Asura असुर

1 An evil spirit,demon

2 A general name for the enemies of Gods,


collected from different sources

for educational purpose